hep-ph updates on
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph) updates on the e-print archive
  • Cosmological Constraints on Invisible Neutrino Decays Revisited. (arXiv:1907.05425v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Miguel Escudero, Malcolm Fairbairn

    Neutrinos could decay. Invisible neutrino decay modes are difficult to target at laboratory experiments, and current bounds on such decays from solar neutrino and neutrino oscillation experiments are somewhat weak. It has been known for some time that Cosmology can serve as a powerful probe of invisible neutrino decays. In this work, we show that in order for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis to be successful, the invisible neutrino decay lifetime should be $\tau_\nu > 10^{-3}\,\text{s}$. We revisit Cosmic Microwave Background constraints on invisible neutrino decays, and by using the latest Planck observations we find that neutrino lifetimes $\tau_\nu < (1.2-0.3)\times 10^{9}\,\text{s} \, \left({m_\nu}/{ 0.05\,\text{eV} }\right)^3$ are excluded at $95\%$ CL. We show that this bound is robust to modifications of the cosmological model, in particular that it is independent of the presence of dark radiation. We find that typical invisible neutrino decay modes with rates $\tau_\nu < 10^{5}\,\text{s}\, \left({m_\nu}/{ 0.05\,\text{eV} }\right)^3$ are disfavoured at more than $5\,\sigma$ with respect to $\Lambda$CDM given the latest Planck CMB observations. Finally, we show that when including high-$\ell$ Planck polarization data, neutrino lifetimes $\tau_\nu = (2-14)\times 10^{9}\,\text{s} \, \left({m_\nu}/{ 0.05\,\text{eV} }\right)^3$ are mildly preferred -- with a 1-2 $\sigma$ significance -- over neutrinos being stable.

  • Polarizability of the nucleon. (arXiv:1907.05434v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Martin Schumacher

    The status of the experimental and theoretical investigations on the polarizabilities of the nucleon is presented. This includes a confirmation of the validity of the previously introduced recommended values of the polarizabilities [1,2]. It is shown that the only meaningful approach to a prediction of the polarizabilities is obtained from the nonsubtracted dispersion theory, where the appropriate degrees of freedom taken from other precise experimental data are taken in account. The present values of the recommended polarizabilities are $\alpha_p= 12.0 \pm 0.5$, $\beta_p= 1.9 \mp 0.5$, $\alpha_n= 12.6 \pm 1.2$, $\beta_n= 2.6 \mp 1.2$ in units of $10^{-4}$fm$^3$ and $\gamma^{(p)}_\pi= -36.4 \pm 1.5$, $\gamma^{(n)}_\pi =+58.6 \pm 4.0$, $\gamma^{(p)}_0=-0.58 \pm 0.20$, $\gamma^{(n)}_0= +0.38\pm 0.22$ in units of $10^{-4}$fm$^4$.

  • Correlations between azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=2.76$~TeV in the HYDJET++ and AMPT models. (arXiv:1907.05450v1 [nucl-th])

    Authors: M. Dordevic, J. Milosevic, L. Nadderd, M. Stojanovic, F. Wang, X. Zhu

    Correlations between azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics $v_{n}$ ($n = 2, 3, 4$) are studied using the events from PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=2.76$~TeV generated by the HYDJET++ and AMPT models, and compared to the corresponding experimental results obtained by the ATLAS Collaboration. The Fourier harmonics $v_{n}$ are measured over a wide centrality range using the two-particle azimuthal correlation method. The slopes of the $v_{2}$--$v_{3}$ correlation from both models are in a good agreement with the ATLAS data. The HYDJET++ model predicts a stronger slope for the $v_{2}$--$v_{4}$ and $v_{3}$--$v_{4}$ correlations than the ones experimentally measured, while the results from the AMPT model are in a rather good agreement with the experimental results. In contrast to the HYDJET++ predictions, the AMPT model predicts a boomerang-like shape in the structure of the correlations as found in the experimental data.

  • On the Cottingham formula and the electromagnetic contribution to the proton-neutron mass splitting. (arXiv:1907.05459v1 [nucl-th])

    Authors: Andre Walker-Loud

    The excess mass of the neutron over the proton arises from two sources within the Standard Model, electromagnetism and the splitting of the down and up quark masses. The Cottingham Formula provides a means of determining the QED corrections from the forward Compton Amplitude, but this is challenged by the need for a subtraction function and the mixing of the QED and QCD (electro-weak) effects. I review the present understanding of the Cottingham Formula, including a discussion on the development of the formula, its renormalization which induces the mixing of QED and QCD effects, and the necessary modeling of the subtraction function that must be done to arrive a numerical prediction. I summarize the Regge Model originally proposed by Gasser and Leutwyler and I also review the proposed model by Walker-Loud, Carlson and Miller, which is an interpolation function between the low and high $Q^2$ regimes, both of which are anchored by rigorous theoretical underpinnings, for which I argue a more reliable theoretical uncertainty estimate can be obtained.

  • Violation of the Kluberg-Stern--Zuber theorem in SCET. (arXiv:1907.05463v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Martin Beneke, Mathias Garny, Robert Szafron, Jian Wang

    A classic result, originally due to Kluberg-Stern and Zuber, states that operators that vanish by the classical equation of motion (eom) do not mix into "physical" operators. Here we show that and explain why this result does not hold in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) for the renormalization of power-suppressed operators. We calculate the non-vanishing mixing of eom operators for the simplest case of $N$-jet operators with a single collinear field in every direction. The result implies that---for the computation of the anomalous dimension but not for on-shell matrix elements---there exists a preferred set of fields that must be used to reproduce the infrared singularities of QCD scattering amplitudes. We identify these fields and explain their relation to the gauge-invariant SCET Lagrangian. Further checks reveal another generic property of SCET beyond leading power, which will be relevant to resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic level, the divergence of convolution integrals with the hard matching coefficients. We propose an operator solution that allows to consistently renormalize such divergences.

  • Electroweak corrections to the fermionic decays of heavy Higgs states. (arXiv:1907.05468v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Florian Domingo, Sebastian Paßehr

    Extensions of the Standard Model often come with additional, possibly electroweakly charged Higgs states, the prototypal example being the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model. While collider phenomenology does not exclude the possibility for some of these new scalar fields to be light, it is relatively natural to consider masses in the multi-TeV range, in which case the only remaining light Higgs boson automatically receives SM-like properties. The appearance of a hierarchy between the new-physics states and the electroweak scale then leads to sizable electroweak corrections, e. g. in the decays of the heavy Higgs bosons, which are dominated by effects of infrared type, namely Sudakov logarithms. Such radiative contributions obviously affect the two-body decays, but should also be paired with the radiation of electroweak gauge bosons (or lighter Higgs bosons) for a consistent picture at the one-loop order. Resummation of the leading terms is also relatively easy to achieve. We re-visit these questions in the specific case of the fermionic decays of heavy Higgs particles in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, in particular pointing out the consequences of the three-body final states for the branching ratios of the heavy scalars.

  • Astrophysical limits on very light axion-like particles from Chandra grating spectroscopy of NGC 1275. (arXiv:1907.05475v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Christopher S. Reynolds, M.C. David Marsh, Helen R. Russell, Andrew C. Fabian, Robyn N. Smith, Francesco Tombesi

    Axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) are a well motivated extension of the Standard Model and are generic in String Theory. The X-ray transparency of the magnetized intracluster medium (ICM) in galaxy clusters is a powerful probe of very light ALPs (masses $0<m_a<10^{-11}\,{\rm eV}$); as X-ray photons propagate through the magnetic field of the ICM, they may undergo energy-dependent quantum mechanical conversion into ALPs (and vice versa), imprinting distortions on the observed X-ray spectrum. We present new Chandra data for the active galactic nucleus NGC1275 at the center of the Perseus cluster. Employing the High-Energy Transmission Gratings (HETG) with a 490ks exposure, we obtain a high-quality 1-9keV spectrum free from photon pileup and ICM contamination. Apart from iron-band features, the spectrum is accurately described by a power-law continuum, with any spectral distortions at the $<3$% level. We compute photon survival probabilities as a function of ALP mass $m_a$ and ALP-photon coupling constant $g_{a\gamma}$ for an ensemble of ICM magnetic field models, and then use the NGC1275 spectrum to derive constraints on the $(m_a, g_{a\gamma})$-plane. Marginalizing over the magnetic field realizations, the 99.7% credible region limits the ALP-photon coupling to $g_{a\gamma}<6-8\times 10^{-13}\, {\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (depending upon the magnetic field model) for masses $m_a<1\times 10^{-12}\,{\rm eV}$. These are the most stringent limit to date on $g_{a\gamma}$ for these very light ALPs, and have already reached the sensitivity limits of next-generation helioscopes and light-shining-through-wall experiments. We highlight the potential of these studies with the next-generation X-ray observatories Athena and Lynx, but note the critical importance of advances in relative calibration of these future X-ray spectrometers.

  • A nonunitary interpretation for a single vector leptoquark combined explanation to the $B$-decay anomalies. (arXiv:1907.05511v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: C. Hati, J. Kriewald, J. Orloff, A.M. Teixeira

    In order to simultaneously account for both $R_{D^{(\ast)}}$ and $R_{K^{(\ast)}}$ anomalies in $B$-decays, we consider an extension of the Standard Model by a single vector leptoquark field, and study how one can achieve the required lepton flavour non-universality, starting from a priori universal gauge couplings. While the unitary quark-lepton mixing induced by $SU(2)_L$ breaking is insufficient, we find that effectively nonunitary mixings hold the key to simultaneously address the $R_{K^{(\ast)}}$ and $R_{D^{(\ast)}}$ anomalies. As an intermediate step towards various UV-complete models, we show that the mixings of charged leptons with additional vector-like heavy leptons successfully provide a nonunitary framework to explain $R_{K^{(\ast)}}$ and $R_{D^{(\ast)}}$. These realisations have a strong impact for electroweak precision observables and for flavour violating ones: isosinglet heavy lepton realisations are already excluded due to excessive contributions to lepton flavour violating $Z$-decays. Furthermore, in the near future, the expected progress in the sensitivity of charged lepton flavour violation experiments should allow to fully probe this class of vector leptoquark models.

  • Probing observational bounds on scalar-tensor theories from standard sirens. (arXiv:1907.05516v1 [gr-qc])

    Authors: Rocco D'Agostino, Rafael C. Nunes

    Standard sirens are the gravitational wave (GW) analog of the astronomical standard candles, and can provide powerful information about the dynamics of the Universe. In this work, we simulate a catalog with 1000 standard siren events from binary neutron star mergers, within the sensitivity predicted for the third generation of the ground GW detector called Einstein telescope. After correctly modifying the propagation of GWs as input to generate the catalog, we apply our mock data set on scalar-tensor theories where the speed of GW propagation is equal to the speed of light. As a first application, we find new observational bounds on the running of the Planck mass, when considering appropriate values within the stability condition of the theory, and we discuss some consequences on the amplitude of the running of the Planck mass. In the second part, we combine our simulated standard sirens catalog with other geometric cosmological tests (Supernovae Ia and cosmic chronometers measurements) to constrain the Hu-Sawicki $f(R)$ gravity model. We thus find new and non-null deviations from the standard $\Lambda$CDM model, showing that in the future the $f(R)$ gravity can be tested up to 95\% confidence level. The results obtained here show that the statistical accuracy achievable by future ground based GW observations, mainly with the ET detector (and planed detectors with a similar sensitivity), can provide strong observational bounds on modified gravity theories.

  • Neutrinos from Type Ia and failed core-collapse supernovae at dark matter detectors. (arXiv:1907.05533v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Nirmal Raj

    Neutrinos produced in the hot and dense interior of the next galactic supernova would be visible at dark matter experiments in coherent elastic nuclear recoils. While studies on this channel have focused on successful core-collapse supernovae, a thermonuclear (Type Ia) explosion, or a core-collapse that fails to explode and forms a black hole, are as likely to occur as the next galactic supernova event. I show that generation-3 noble liquid-based dark matter experiments such as DARWIN and ARGO, operating at sub-keV thresholds with ionization-only signals, would distinguish between (a) leading hypotheses of Type Ia explosion mechanisms by detecting an $\mathcal{O}$(1) s burst of $\mathcal{O}$(1) MeV neutrinos, and (b) progenitor models of failed supernovae by detecting an $\mathcal{O}$(1) s burst of $\mathcal{O}$(10) MeV neutrinos, especially by marking the instant of black hole formation from abrupt stoppage of neutrino detection. This detection is sensitive to all neutrino flavors and insensitive to neutrino oscillations, thereby making measurements complementary to neutrino experiments.

  • Predictions of $\Upsilon(4S) \to h_b(1P,2P) \pi^+\pi^-$ transitions. (arXiv:1907.05547v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Yun-Hua Chen

    In this work, we study the contributions of the intermediate bottomoniumlike $Z_b$ states and the bottom meson loops in the heavy quark spin flip transitions $\Upsilon(4S) \to h_b(1P,2P) \pi^+\pi^-$. Depending on the constructive or destructive interferences between the $Z_b$-exchange and the bottom meson loops mechanisms, we predict two possible branching ratios for each process: BR$_{\Upsilon(4S) \to h_b(1P)\pi^+\pi^-}\simeq\big(1.3^{+0.9}_{-0.4}\times10^{-6}\big)$ or $\big( 0.5^{+0.5}_{-0.2}\times10^{-6}\big)$, and BR$_{\Upsilon(4S) \to h_b(2P)\pi^+\pi^-}\simeq \big(9.2^{+1.8}_{-1.2}\times10^{-10}\big)$ or $\big( 4.4^{+0.2}_{-0.3}\times10^{-10}\big)$. The bottom meson loops are found to play the leading role in the $\Upsilon(4S) \to h_b(nP) \pi\pi$ transitions, while they can not produce decay rates comparable to the heavy quark spin conserved $\Upsilon(4S) \to \Upsilon(1S,2S) \pi\pi$ processes.

  • Evaporating primordial black holes as varying dark energy. (arXiv:1907.05608v1 [astro-ph.CO])

    Authors: Savvas Nesseris, Domenico Sapone, Spyros Sypsas

    If light enough primordial black holes account for dark matter, then its density decreases with time as they lose mass via Hawking radiation. We show that this time-dependence of the matter density can be formulated as an equivalent $w(z)$ dark energy model and we study its implications on the expansion history. Using our approach and comparing with the latest cosmological data, including the supernovae type Ia, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, Cosmic Microwave Background and the Hubble expansion H(z) data, we place observational constraints on the PBH model. We find that it is statistically consistent with $\Lambda$CDM according to the AIC statistical tool.

  • Effective interactions in Ricci-Based Gravity models below the non-metricity scale. (arXiv:1907.05615v1 [hep-th])

    Authors: Adria Delhom, Victor Miralles, Ana Peñuelas

    We show how minimally-coupled matter fields of arbitrary spin, when coupled to Ricci-Based Gravity theories, develop non-trivial effective interactions that can be treated perturbatively only below a characteristic high-energy scale $\Lambda_Q$. Our results generalize to arbitrary matter fields those recently obtained for spin 1/2 fields in \cite{Latorre:2017uve}. We then use this interactions to set bounds on the high-energy scale $\Lambda_Q$ that controls departures of Ricci-Based Gravity theories from General Relativity. Particularly, for Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity we obtain the strong bound $ |\kappa|<10^{-26} \text{ m}^5 \text{kg}^{-1}\text{s}^{-2} $.

  • Theory perspectives on rare Kaon decays and CPV. (arXiv:1907.05616v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Giancarlo D'Ambrosio

    The following proceedings contain a theory perspective on rare Kaon decays. I review rare kaon decays in the LHC era: we discuss interplay with B-anomalies and possible New Physics in direct CP violation in $K\to 2\pi$: very rare kaon decays like $K \to \pi \nu \bar{\nu}$ are very important to this purpose. We discuss also the decays $K^0 \to \mu ^+ \mu ^-$ due to the LHCB measurement

  • On Searches for Gravitational Dark Matter with Quantum Sensors. (arXiv:1907.05680v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Xavier Calmet

    The possibility of searching for dark matter with quantum sensors has recently received a lot of attention. In this short paper, we discuss the possibility of searching for gravitational dark matter with quantum sensors and identify a very narrow window of opportunity for future quantum sensors with improved sensitivity. Gravitational dark matter candidates with masses in the range $[10^{-3}, 1] \, \text{eV}$ could lead to an effective time variation of the proton mass that could be measured with, e.g., future atomic clocks.

  • Particle Ratios within EPOS, UrQMD and Thermal Models at AGS, SPS and RHIC Energies. (arXiv:1907.05729v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Mahmoud Hanafy (Benha U. and WLCAPP, Cairo), Abdel Nasser Tawfik (Nile U., ECTP and Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat), Muhammad Maher (Helwan U. and WLCAPP, Cairo), Werner Scheinast (LHEP JINR, Dubna)

    The particle ratios $k^+/\pi^+$, $\pi^-/K^-$, $\bar{p}/\pi^-$, $\Lambda/\pi^-$, $\Omega/\pi^-$, $p/\pi^+$, $\pi^-/\pi^+$, $K^-/K^+$, $\bar{p}/p$, $\bar{\Lambda}/\Lambda$, $\bar{\Sigma}/\Sigma$, $ \bar{\Omega}/\Omega$ measured at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies are compared with large statistical ensembles of $100,000$ events deduced from the CRMC EPOS $1.99$ and the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) hybrid model. In the UrQMD hybrid model two types of phase transitions are taken into account. All these are then confronted to the Hadron Resonance Gas Model. The two types of phase transitions are apparently indistinguishable. Apart from $k^+/\pi^+$, $k^-/\pi^-$, $\Omega/\pi^-$, $\bar{p}/\pi^+$, and $\bar{\Omega}/\Omega$, the UrQMD hybrid model agrees well with the CRMC EPOS $1.99$. Also, we conclude that the CRMC EPOS $1.99$ seems to largely underestimate $k^+/\pi^+$, $k^-/\pi^-$, $\Omega/\pi^-$, and $\bar{p}/\pi^+$.

  • Monopole-antimonopole pair production by magnetic fields. (arXiv:1907.05745v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Arttu Rajantie

    Quantum electrodynamics predicts that in a strong electric field, electron-positron pairs are produced by the Schwinger process, which can be interpreted as quantum tunnelling through the Coulomb potential barrier. If magnetic monopoles exist, monopole-antimonopole pairs would be similarly produced in strong magnetic fields by the electromagnetic dual of this process. The production rate can be computed using semiclassical techniques without relying on perturbation theory, and therefore it can be done reliably in spite of the monopoles' strong coupling to the electromagnetic field. This article explains this phenomenon and discusses the bounds on monopole masses arising from the strongest magnetic fields in the Universe, which are in neutron stars known as magnetars and in heavy ion collision experiments such as lead-lead collisions carried out in November 2018 in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It will also discuss open theoretical questions affecting the calculation.

  • On the nature of the lowest-lying odd parity charmed baryon $\Lambda_c(2595)$ and $\Lambda_c(2625)$ resonances. (arXiv:1907.05747v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Juan Nieves, Rafael Pavao

    We study the structure of the $\Lambda_c(2595)$ and $\Lambda_c(2625)$ resonances in the framework of an effective field theory consistent with heavy quark spin and chiral symmetries, that incorporates the interplay between $\Sigma_c^{(*)}\pi-ND^{(*)}$ baryon-meson degrees of freedom and bare P-wave $c\bar ud$ quark-model states. We show that these two resonances are not HQSS partners. The $J^P= 3/2^-$ $\Lambda_c(2625)$ should be viewed mostly as a dressed three quark state, whose origin is determined by a bare state, predicted to lie very close to the mass of the resonance. The $J^P= 1/2^-$ $\Lambda_c(2595)$ seems to have, however, a predominant molecular structure. This is because, it is either the result of the chiral $\Sigma_c\pi$ interaction, which threshold is located much more closer than the mass of the bare three-quark state, or because the light degrees of freedom in its inner structure are coupled to the unnatural $0^-$ quantum-numbers. We show that both situations can occur depending on the renormalization procedure used. We find some additional states, but the classification of the spectrum in terms of HQSS is difficult, despite having used interactions that respect this symmetry. This is because the bare quark-model state and the $\Sigma_c\pi$ threshold are located extraordinarily close to the $\Lambda_c(2625)$ and $\Lambda_c(2595)$, respectively, and hence they play totally different roles in each sector.

  • Scalar dark matter coannihilating with a coloured fermion. (arXiv:1907.05766v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: Simone Biondini, Stefan Vogl

    We analyze the phenomenology of a simplified model for a real scalar dark matter candidate interacting with quarks via a coloured fermionic mediator. In the coannihilation regime, the dark matter abundance is controlled by the dynamics of the coloured fermions which can be significantly affected by non-perturbative effects. We employ a non-relativistic effective field theory which allows us to systematically treat the Sommerfeld effect and bound state formation in the early Universe. The parameter space compatible with the dark matter relic abundance is confronted with direct, indirect and collider searches. A substantial part of the parameter space, with dark matter masses up to 18 TeV, is already excluded by XENON1T. Most of the remaining thermal relics can be probed by a future Darwin-like experiments, when taking properly into account the running of the relevant couplings for the direct detection processes.

  • Associated production of a Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks and a weak vector boson decaying leptonically at NNLO in QCD. (arXiv:1907.05836v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: R. Gauld, A. Gehrmann-De Ridder, E. W. N. Glover, A. Huss, I. Majer

    We present the calculation of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections in perturbative QCD for the production of a Higgs boson decaying into a pair of bottom quarks in association with a leptonically decaying weak vector boson: $\mathrm{pp} \to V \mathrm{H} + X \to \ell\bar{\ell}\;\mathrm{b\bar{b}} + X$. We consider the corrections to both the production and decay sub-processes, retaining a fully differential description of the final state including off-shell propagators of the Higgs and vector boson. The calculation is carried out using the antenna subtraction formalism and is implemented in the NNLOJET framework. Clustering and identification of $\mathrm{b}$-jets is performed with the flavour-$k_t$ algorithm and results for fiducial cross sections and distributions are presented for the LHC at $\sqrt{s}=13\;\text{TeV}$. We assess the residual theory uncertainty by varying the production and decay scales independently and provide scale uncertainty bands in our results, yielding percent-level accurate predictions for observables in this Higgs production mode computed at NNLO. Confronting a na\"ive perturbative expansion of the cross section against the customary re-scaling procedure to a fixed branching ratio reveals that starting from NNLO, the latter could be inadequate in estimating missing higher-order effects through scale variations.

  • A Goldilocks Higgs. (arXiv:1907.05837v1 [hep-th])

    Authors: Nemanja Kaloper, Alexander Westphal

    If the Higgs is not a CP eigenstate, it can couple to a topological 4-form sector which yields a complex vacuum structure. In many of the Higgs vacua electroweak symmetry is unbroken. In just as many it breaks when the 4-form flux is large enough. For a fixed value of flux, the symmetry breaking vacua have a smaller vacuum energy than the symmetric ones, where the difference is quantized because it is set by the 4-form flux. This leads to the possibility that there is a value of the 4-form flux for any UV contributions to the Higgs vev that automatically cancels it down to the right value, $\sim$ TeV, if the 4-form charges are quantized in the units of the electroweak scale. This would still leave the cosmological constant which could be selected anthropically.

  • Neutral and charged pion properties under strong magnetic fields in the NJL model. (arXiv:1907.05840v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: M. Coppola, D. Gomez Dumm, S. Noguera, N.N. Scoccola

    In the framework of the Nambu--Jona-Lasino (NJL) model, we study the effect of an intense external uniform magnetic field on neutral and charged pion masses and decay form factors. In particular, the treatment of charged pions is carried out on the basis of the Ritus eigenfunction approach to magnetized relativistic systems. Our analysis shows that in the presence of the magnetic field three and four nonvanishing pion-to-vacuum hadronic form factors can be obtained for the case of the neutral and charged pions, respectively. As expected, it is seen that for nonzero magnetic field the $\pi^0$ meson can still be treated as a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, and consequently the corresponding form factors are shown to satisfy various chiral relations. For definite parametrizations of the model, numerical results for $\pi^0$ and $\pi^\pm$ masses and decay constants are obtained and compared with previous calculations given in the literature.

  • Compact star properties from an extended linear sigma model. (arXiv:1907.05841v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: János Takátsy, Péter Kovács, Zsolt Szép, György Wolf

    The equation of state provided by effective models of strongly interacting matter should comply with the restrictions imposed by current astrophysical observations of compact stars. Using the equation of state given by the (axial-)vector meson extended linear sigma model, we determine the mass-radius relation and study whether these restrictions are satisfied under the assumption that most of the star is filled with quark matter. We also compare the mass-radius sequence with those given by the equations of state of somewhat simpler models.

  • Flavor changing neutral current decays $t\to c X$ ($X=\gamma,\,g,\, Z,\, H$) and $t\to c\bar \ell\ell $ ($\ell=\mu,\,\tau$) via scalar leptoquarks. (arXiv:1907.05877v1 [hep-ph])

    Authors: A. Bolaños, R. Sánchez-Vélez, G. Tavares-Velasco

    The flavor changing neutral current decays $t\to c X$ ($X=\gamma,\,g,\, Z,\, H$) and $t\to c\bar \ell\ell $ ($\ell=\mu,\,\tau$) are studied in a renormalizable scalar leptoquark (LQ) model with no proton decay, where a scalar $SU(2)$ doublet with hypercharge $Y=7/6$ is added to the standard model, yielding a non-chiral LQ $\Omega_{5/3}$. Analytical results for the one-loop (tree-level) contributions of a scalar LQ to the $f_i\to f_j X$ ($f_i\to f_j \bar f_m f_l$) decays, with $f_a=q_a, \ell_a$, are presented. We consider the scenario where $\Omega_{5/3}$ couples to the fermions of the second and third families, with its right- and left-handed couplings obeying $\lambda_R^{\ell u_i}/\lambda_L^{\ell u_i}=O(\epsilon)$, where $\epsilon$ parametrizes the relative size between these couplings. The allowed parameter space is then found via the current constraints on the muon $(g-2)$, the $\tau\to \mu\gamma$ decay, the LHC Higgs boson data, and the direct LQ searches at the LHC. For $m_{\Omega_{5/3}}=1$ TeV and $\epsilon=10^{-3}$, we find that the $t\to c X$ branching ratios are of similar size and can be as large as $10^{-8}$ in a tiny area of the parameter space, whereas ${\rm Br}(t\to c\bar \tau\tau)$ [${\rm Br}(t\to c\bar \mu\mu)$] can be up to $10^{-6}$ ($10^{-7}$).

  • Sterile neutrinos influence on oscillation characteristics of active neutrinos at short distances in the generalized model of neutrino mixing. (arXiv:1806.05922v3 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: V. V. Khruschov, S. V. Fomichev

    A phenomenological model with active and sterile neutrinos is used for calculations of neutrino oscillation characteristics at the normal mass hierarchy of active neutrinos. Taking into account the contributions of sterile neutrinos, appearance and survival probabilities for active neutrinos are calculated. Modified graphical dependencies for the probability of appearance of electron neutrinos/antineutrinos in muon neutrino/antineutrino beams as a function of the ratio of the distance to the neutrino energy and other model parameters are obtained. It is shown that in the case of a certain type mixing between active and sterile neutrinos it is possible to clarify some features of the anomalies of neutrino data at short distances. A new parametrization for a particular type mixing matrix of active and sterile neutrinos that takes into account the additional sources of CP violation is used. The comparison with the existing experimental data is performed and, with using this knowledge, the estimates of some model parameters are found. The theoretical results obtained for mixing of active and sterile neutrinos can be applied for interpretation and prediction of results of ground-based experiments on search of sterile neutrinos as well as for analyses of some astrophysical data.

  • Neutrino masses, cosmological inflation and dark matter in a $U(1)_{B-L}$ model with type II seesaw mechanism. (arXiv:1807.02204v3 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: J. G. Rodrigues, A. C. O. Santos, J. G. Ferreira Jr, C. A. de S. Pires

    In this work we implement the type II seesaw mechanism into the framework of the $U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge model. As main gain, the right-handed neutrinos of the model get free to play the role of the dark matter of the universe. As side effect, the model realizes Higgs inflation without problem with loss of unitarity.

  • Anyonic particle-vortex statistics and the nature of dense quark matter. (arXiv:1808.04827v3 [hep-th] UPDATED)

    Authors: Aleksey Cherman, Srimoyee Sen, Laurence G. Yaffe

    We show that $\mathbb{Z}_3$-valued particle-vortex braiding phases are present in high density quark matter. Certain mesonic and baryonic excitations, in the presence of a superfluid vortex, have orbital angular momentum quantized in units of $\hbar/3$. Such non-local topological features can distinguish phases whose realizations of global symmetries, as probed by local order parameters, are identical. If $\mathbb{Z}_3$ braiding phases and angular momentum fractionalization are absent in lower density hadronic matter, as is widely expected, then the quark matter and hadronic matter regimes of dense QCD must be separated by at least one phase transition.

  • Coupling QCD-scale axion-like particles to gluons. (arXiv:1811.03474v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: Daniel Aloni, Yotam Soreq, Mike Williams

    We present a novel data-driven method for determining the hadronic interaction strengths of axion-like particles (ALPs) with QCD-scale masses. Using our method, it is possible to calculate the hadronic production and decay rates of ALPs, along with many of the largest ALP decay rate to exclusive final states. To illustrate the impact on QCD-scale ALP phenomenology, we consider the scenario where the ALP-gluon coupling is dominant over the ALP coupling to photons, electroweak bosons, and all fermions for $m_{\pi} \lesssim m_a \lesssim 3$ GeV. We emphasize, however, that our method can easily be generalized to any set of ALP couplings to SM particles. Finally, using the approach developed here, we provide calculations for the branching fractions of $\eta_c \to VV$ decays, i.e. $\eta_c$ decays into two vector mesons, which are consistent with the known experimental values.

  • Constraints on Mediator Coupled to Heavy Quarks from LHC Data. (arXiv:1903.00496v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: Manuel Drees, Zhongyi Zhang

    We apply LHC data to constrain a simplified extension of the Standard Model containing a new spin-1 mediator $R$, which does not couple to first generation quarks, and a spinor dark matter particle $\chi$. We recast ATLAS and CMS searches for final states containing one or more jet(s) + missing $E_T$, with or without $b$ tags, as well as searches for di-jet resonances with $b$ or $t$ tagging. We find that LHC constraints on the axial vector couplings of the mediator are always stronger than the unitarity bound, which scales like $m_R/m_t$. If $R$ has a sizable invisible branching ratio, the strongest LHC bound on both vector couplings and axial vector coupling comes from a di-jet + missing $E_T$ search with or without double $b$ tag. These bounds are quite strong for $m_R < 1$ TeV, even though we have switched off all couplings to valence quarks. Searches for a di-jet resonance with double $b$ tag lead to comparable bounds with the previous results even if $R \rightarrow \chi \bar \chi$ decays are allowed; these are the only sensitive LHC searches if the invisible branching ratio of $R$ is very small or zero.

  • Reconstructing the EFT of Inflation from Cosmological Data. (arXiv:1904.00991v2 [astro-ph.CO] UPDATED)

    Authors: Amel Durakovic, Paul Hunt, Subodh P. Patil, Subir Sarkar

    Reconstructions of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) of curvature perturbations from cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large-scale structure data suggest that the usually assumed power-law PPS has localised features (up to $\sim 10\%$ in amplitude), although of only marginal significance in the framework of $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. On the other hand if the underlying cosmology is assumed to be Einstein-de Sitter, larger features in the PPS (up to $\sim 20\%$) are required to accurately fit the observed acoustic peaks. Within the context of single clock inflation, we show that any given reconstruction of the PPS can be mapped on to functional parameters of the underlying effective theory of the adiabatic mode within a 2nd-order formalism, provided the best fit fractional change of the PPS, $\Delta\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R}/\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R}$ is such that $(\Delta\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R}/\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R})^3$ falls within the $1\,\sigma$ confidence interval of the reconstruction for features induced by variations of either the sound speed $c_\mathrm{s}$ or the slow-roll parameter $\epsilon$. Although there is a degeneracy amongst these functional parameters (and the models that project onto them), we can identify simple representative inflationary models that yield such features in the PPS. Thus we provide a dictionary (more accurately, a thesaurus) to go from observational data, via the reconstructed PPS, to models that reproduce them to per cent level precision.

  • $H \rightarrow b\overline{b}j$ at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order Accuracy. (arXiv:1904.08961v3 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: Roberto Mondini, Ciaran Williams

    We present the calculation of the decay $H \rightarrow b\overline{b}j$ at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) accuracy. We consider contributions in which the Higgs boson couples directly to bottom quarks, i.e. our predictions are accurate to order $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_s^3 y_b^2)$ . We calculate the various components needed to construct the NNLO contribution, including an independent calculation of the two-loop amplitudes. We compare our results for the two-loop amplitudes to an existing calculation finding agreement. We present multiple checks on our two-loop expression using the known infrared factorization properties as the emitted gluon becomes soft or collinear. We use our results to construct a Monte Carlo implementation of $H \rightarrow b\overline{b}j$ and present jet rates and differential distributions in the Higgs rest frame using the Durham jet algorithm.

  • Towards testing CMB anomalies using the kinetic and polarized Sunyaev Zel'dovich effects. (arXiv:1904.10981v2 [astro-ph.CO] UPDATED)

    Authors: Juan I. Cayuso, Matthew C. Johnson

    Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies on large angular scales have uncovered a number of anomalous features of marginal statistical significance, such as a hemispherical power asymmetry, lack of power on large angular scales, and features in the power spectrum. Because the primary CMB temperature has been measured at the cosmic variance limit, determining if these anomalies are hints of new physics as opposed to foregrounds, systematics, or simply statistical flukes, requires new observables. In this paper, we highlight the potential contribution that future measurements of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (kSZ) and the polarized Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect (pSZ) could make in determining the physical nature of several CMB anomalies. The kSZ and pSZ effects, temperature and polarization anisotropies induced by scattering from free electrons in the reionized Universe, are the dominant blackbody contribution to the CMB on small angular scales. Using the technique of SZ tomography, measurements of kSZ and pSZ effects can be combined with galaxy surveys to reconstruct the remote CMB dipole and quadrupole fields, providing a 3-dimensional probe of large scale modes inside our Hubble volume. Building on previous work, we forecast the additional constraining power that these observables might offer for a representative set of anomaly models. We find that the remote CMB dipole and quadrupole contain a similar amount of information on anomaly models as the primary CMB polarization. The information from CMB temperature, polarization, and the remote dipole and quadrupole fields is complementary, and the full set of observables can improve constraints on anomaly models by a factor of $\sim 2-4$ using next-generation CMB experiments and galaxy surveys. This could be sufficient to definitively establish the physical origin of several CMB anomalies.

  • Landau and Eckart frames for relativistic fluids in nuclear collisions. (arXiv:1904.11940v2 [nucl-th] UPDATED)

    Authors: Akihiko Monnai

    The quark matter created in relativistic nuclear collisions is interpreted as a nearly-perfect fluid. The recent efforts to explore its finite-density properties in the beam energy scan programs motivate one to revisit the issue of the local rest frame fixing in off-equilibrium hydrodynamics. I first investigate full second-order relativistic hydrodynamics in the Landau and the Eckart frames. Then numerical hydrodynamic simulations are performed to elucidate the effect of frame choice on flow observables in relativistic nuclear collisions. The results indicate that the flow can differ in the Landau and the Eckart frames but charged particle and net baryon rapidity distributions are mostly frame independent when off-equilibrium kinetic freeze-out is considered.

  • Supervised deep learning in high energy phenomenology: a mini review. (arXiv:1905.06047v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: Murat Abdughani, Jie Ren, Lei Wu, Jin Min Yang, Jun Zhao

    Deep learning, a branch of machine learning, have been recently applied to high energy experimental and phenomenological studies. In this note we give a brief review on those applications using supervised deep learning. We first describe various learning models and then recapitulate their applications to high energy phenomenological studies. Some detailed applications are delineated in details, including the machine learning scan in the analysis of new physics parameter space, the graph neural networks in the search of top-squark production and in the $CP$ measurement of the top-Higgs coupling at the LHC.

  • Radiative transitions and magnetic moments of the charmed and bottom vector mesons in chiral perturbation theory. (arXiv:1905.07742v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: Bo Wang, Bin Yang, Lu Meng, Shi-Lin Zhu

    In this work, we systematically study the radiative decays and magnetic moments of the charmed and bottom vector mesons with chiral perturbation theory up to one-loop level. We present the results in SU(2) and SU(3) cases with the mass splitting in loop diagrams kept and unkept, respectively. The obtained decay rates for $D^\ast$ and $B^\ast$ mesons in SU(3) case with the mass splitting kept are: $\Gamma_{\bar{D}^{\ast 0}\to \bar{D}^0\gamma}=16.2^{+6.5}_{-6.0}$ keV, $\Gamma_{D^{\ast-}\to D^-\gamma}=0.73^{+0.7}_{-0.3}$ keV, $\Gamma_{D_s^{\ast-}\to D_s^-\gamma}= 0.32^{+0.3}_{-0.3}$ keV, and $\Gamma_{B^{\ast+}\to B^+\gamma}=0.58^{+0.2}_{-0.2}$ keV, $\Gamma_{B^{\ast0}\to B^0\gamma}=0.23^{+0.06}_{-0.06}$ keV, $\Gamma_{B_s^{\ast0}\to B_s^0\gamma}=0.04^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$ keV. The decay width for $D^{\ast-}\to D^-\gamma$ is consistent with the experimental measurement. As a byproduct, the full widths of $\bar{D}^{\ast0}$ and $D_s^{\ast-}$ are $\Gamma_{\mathrm{tot}}(\bar{D}^{\ast0})\simeq77.7^{+26.7}_{-20.5}~\mathrm{keV}$ and $ \Gamma_{\mathrm{tot}}(D_s^{\ast-})\simeq0.62^{+0.45}_{-0.50}~\mathrm{keV}$, respectively. We also calculate the magnetic moments of the heavy vector mesons. The analytical chiral expressions derived in our work shall be helpful for the extrapolations of lattice QCD simulations in the coming future.

  • Hunting for extra dimensions in the shadow of M87*. (arXiv:1905.12421v3 [gr-qc] UPDATED)

    Authors: Sunny Vagnozzi, Luca Visinelli

    The Event Horizon Telescope has recently provided the first image of the dark shadow around the supermassive black hole M87*. The observation of a highly circular shadow provides strong limits on deviations of M87*'s quadrupole moment from the Kerr value. We show that the absence of such a deviation can be used to constrain the physics of extra dimensions of spacetime. Focusing on the Randall-Sundrum AdS$_5$ brane-world scenario, we show that the observation of M87*'s dark shadow sets the limit $\ell \lesssim 170\,{\rm AU}$, where $\ell$ is the AdS$_5$ curvature radius. This limit is among the first quantitative constraints on exotic physics obtained from the extraordinary first ever image of the dark shadow of a black hole.

  • The CPT-violating effects on neutron's gravitational bound state. (arXiv:1906.00146v3 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: Zhi Xiao

    In this paper, the CPT-violating (CPTV) spin interactions on neutron's gravitational bound state are studied. The helicity-dependent phase evolution due to $\vec{\sigma}\cdot\vec{\tilde{b}}$ and $\vec{\sigma}\cdot\hat{\vec{p}}$ couplings is transparently demonstrated with analytical solutions. The consequent phenomena include not only spin precession and the azimuthal angle $\theta-$ and $\phi-$dependent probability variation, but also transition-frequency shifts between different gravitational bound states. The $\theta$ and $\phi$ time-dependences due to the Earth motion may lead to sidereal variation of the probability profile, a clear signal of Lorentz violation. We also utilize the gravitational transition frequencies measured precisely in the qBounce experiment \cite{GRS} to obtain the rough bound $|\vec{\tilde{b}}|<6.9\times10^{-21}$GeV. Incorporating known systematic errors or using polarized neutron beams may lead to more robust and tighter constraints.

  • Quasistable charginos in ultraperipheral proton-proton collisions at the LHC. (arXiv:1906.08568v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: S. I. Godunov, V. A. Novikov, A. N. Rozanov, M.I. Vysotsky, E. V. Zhemchugov

    We propose an approach for the search of charged long-lived particles produced in ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC. The main idea is to improve event reconstruction at ATLAS and CMS with the help of their forward detectors. Detection of both scattered protons in forward detectors allows complete recovery of event kinematics. Though this requirement reduces the number of events, it greatly suppresses the background, including the strong background from the pile-up.

  • Hypercharge Quantisation and Fermat's Last Theorem. (arXiv:1907.00514v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

    Authors: Nakarin Lohitsiri, David Tong

    What values of the Standard Model hypercharges result in a mathematically consistent quantum field theory? We show that the constraints imposed by the lack of gauge anomalies can be recast as the equation x^3 + y^3 = z^3. If hypercharge is quantised, then x, y and z must be integers. The trivial (and only) solutions, with x=0 or y=0, reproduce the hypercharge assignments seen in Nature. This argument does not rely on the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly, which is automatically vanishing if hypercharge is quantised and the gauge anomalies vanish.

  • Baryon as a Quantum Hall Droplet and the Cheshire Cat Principle. (arXiv:1907.00958v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

    Authors: Yong-Liang Ma, Maciej A. Nowak, Mannque Rho, Ismail Zahed

    We show that the recent proposal to describe the $N_f=1$ baryon in the large number of color limit as a quantum Hall droplet, can be understood as a chiral bag in a 1+2 dimensional strip using the Cheshire cat principle. For a small bag radius, the bag reduces to a vortex line which is the smile of the cat with flowing gapless quarks all spinning in the same direction. The disc enclosed by the smile is described by a topological field theory due to the Callan-Harvey anomaly out-flow. The chiral bag carries naturally unit baryon number and spin $\frac 12 N_c$. The generalization to arbitrary $N_f$ is discussed.

  • Circularly Polarized Gamma Rays in Effective Dark Matter Theory. (arXiv:1907.02402v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

    Authors: Wei-Chih Huang, Kin-Wang Ng, Tzu-Chiang Yuan

    We study the loop-induced circularly polarized gamma rays from dark matter annihilation using the effective dark matter theory approach. Both neutral scalar and fermionic dark matter annihilating into monochromatic diphoton and $Z$-photon final states are considered. To generate the circular polarization asymmetry, $P$ and $CP$ symmetries must be violated in the couplings between dark matter and Standard Model fermions inside the loop with non-vanishing Cutkosky cut. The asymmetry can be sizable especially for $Z$-photon final state for which asymmetry of nearly $90\%$ can be reached. We discuss the prospect for detecting the circular polarization asymmetry of the gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center in future gamma-ray polarimetry experiments.

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